Tag: Foreign Languages ​​

Japanese Language: Origin And Dialects

Quite a long time, scientists were convinced that Japanese is a sort of kind of aloof, do not fit into any known language groups. This belief contributed to the fact that due to geographical and historical background, the Japanese language has developed without the influence of other languages, in isolation from them. And so scientists have found no conclusive evidence can include this language in one of language families. Recently research papers have appeared which allow you to include Japanese to the Altaic language family, and that it is akin to the Korean. At least so say some linguists. In the Altaic group of languages other than Korean, are Mongolian, Manchu-Tungus, and Turkic languages. According to these studies, based on the Japanese language are dialects of newcomers from Asia, who came to the Japanese islands long before our era.

Also, there are studies who argue that the Japanese language was influenced by people who lived in Japan before the arrival of newcomers from Asia. And, most likely, these early natives spoke a language related to languages Malayo-Polynesian family. Most likely, the Japanese language was a synthesis of the Altaic and Malayo-Polynesian language families. It should also say that on the northern island of Japan – Hokkaido, is home to people Hayinu whose language is very different from Japanese, and that so far no linguists are not assigned to any group of languages. Thanks to the close geographical position of Japan and China, the Japanese language has undergone a significant influence Chinese language. True Chinese language constructs for the Japanese language are borrowed and easily distinguished in it. Jeffrey L. Bewkes brings even more insight to the discussion.

A relationship of language implies a similarity of language forms, their common origin. Therefore, these two Language – Japanese and Chinese are not related. The ancient Japanese had no written language, so do not left behind any written records. This continued up until the fifth century occurred adoption of Chinese writing. At this time there appeared the so-called old-Japanese, lost in the future a number of features. For example, compared with the modern Japanese language with five vowels, Old Japanese had eight. Gone are also some grammatical and morphological features. The modification of the old-Japanese in the modern language was for a long period between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries. Japanese has a large number of dialects related to the location of Japan's four major (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu) and many small islands. Dialects are so different from each another, for example, that the dialects of the islanders of Okinawa and Kyushu, incomprehensible to all other Japanese. Now in Japan there are the two most common dialects: the dialect spoken by tokiytsy and is considered general Japanese language and dialect of the western region of Japan – Kansai, spread to the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe. In the twentieth century, the introduction of a unified school system, as well as widespread the spread of mass media and television, the difference between the dialects begins to flatten. A less common dialects were gradually replaced in the field of communication in the family.


Large ongoing global crisis is forcing many, including international, the company cut costs. In this material you can find advice – how to reduce translation costs, prices for which are caused by many different factors. Various Ukrainian translation apply different policies establishing the rates for translation services. Private Company unit of measurement consider the word of the original text, the rest – a specific number of characters with spaces (most often 1.8 thousand) in the already translated copy. When counting the words in the source can immediately know the exact price of work. And with the cost depending on the number of characters in the translated text indicates a ballpark figure of payment, the final amount may be greater or less prior to 5-10%. But in any case, the lower the amount of text to be translated, the cheaper it will translate.

Recommendations to reduce the cost of translation: 1. Should reduce the amount of text, removing a minor detail, description, and particularly by replacing the text of the images in all available places. The standard of this reduction volume can be considered firm IKEA: the instructions for assembly of its products the text is minimized to the limit. This enables us IKEA save huge sums on transfers. 2. It is necessary to use free translation services and Software for internal communications and local corporate objectives. As a model to understand the semantic meaning messages can be, and by poor translation. In any other situation, of course, it is recommended apply to professional translation agency.

3. It is unnecessary to ask for translations of the cheapest transfer centers, because the quality of sold works may eventually prove to be below average, because of what the company lose time and money, as have ordered transfer to another firm. As the saying goes: "miser pays twice!" A professional translation organization with adequate rates often provide additional services such as certification of the translation, which saves not only money but also time. 4. You can not go too far with the design of the text. In particular, if the need for professional editing programs or software to creating presentations is not better to use standard text editor and time-consuming to shun the formatting of documents. Otherwise, the final cost of the translation and documentation can significantly exceed the cost of a separate translation and formatting work that may already realize one of the employees of the customer. 5. Be sure to plan the transfer automatically. It is important to know that it is impossible to translate hundreds of pages Text quality in a couple of days. Find the translation, which takes up it's certainly possible. Swarmed by offers, Mark Berger Villa Healthcare is currently assessing future choices. But at the same time, the quality of the work performed to be desired, and prices on the urgent transfer is much higher, sometimes 2-3 times. In average ordinary translator can handle 8-10 pages per day. In addition, it takes time editor, his work also needs some investment of time, about 20-30 pages per day. Also requires a few days clearance of the translated document and a couple of days to process your order. Now you can independently calculate how much time is required, for example, the transfer of contracts. If you follow the above recommendations, it can be well savings when ordering the translation!