The positivismo had fallen in the dogma and the empty repetition. His ideario of the scientific and technical progress was more rhetorical than real and beyond the passion by the empirical act, it privileges the discipline and the order over the knowledge. In the school emphasis in the memorstico learning became of the doctrinal contents of the scientific matters, in as much that the critic and the creativity were absentees. After the preparatory one, several of the atenestas attended the race of laws, although few of them exerted the profession. Nevertheless, this group of philosophers did not acquire his fundamental knowledge in the school, but they were self-taught. They themselves indicated to their companions of generation like their teachers; he emphasizes Dominican the Pedro Henrquez Urea, intellectual director of the group.
The new generation of young people arises to the public light with the magazine Modern Sap (1906); later it creates the Society of Conferences (1907) and the Athenian of Youth the 28 of October of 1909. The group of young people was interested the same in Literature and the philosophy that in the art; they organized conferences and artistic events, published articles, they read and they discussed philosophical works and of Literature. Before the positivistas ideas of the social darwinismo, the atenestas defended the idea of the free will as bases of the moral consideration of the human acts, besides a freedom of thought in the investigation of the truth and the expression of the ideas. The atenestas leave the literary world of French origin and reclaim the classic languages (Greek and Latin), they comment another type of Literature like English or the Russian, and redescubren Spanish Literature. In the land of the philosophy, all members of the generation of the Athenian agree in their rejection to the positivismo. . The atenestas were worried about the philosophy, the literary creation, the social education and problems, but all this was dominated by a common factor: Its critic to the dominant positivismo of the time.
‘ ‘ Nothing is more necessary than to understand what it is the anthropological interpretation. Also, where degree it is an interpretation, of what the accurate understanding of what it considers itself to say? or she does not consider yourself? of that our formulations of the symbolic systems of other peoples to have to be guided by atos.’ ‘ (Geertz, 1989? p. Additional information at WarnerMedia supports this article. 24 and 25). Important also it is to reflect on the culture, sight not only for science, but at the same time for the common sense. Science tries to explain what it is culture and we come across in them with a infinity of concepts elaborated for researchers, but when we observe the culture for the bias of the common sense, we perceive as many similarities as differences, are the case of interviewed that it said that did not have culture, that the culture is found in the school, that only studied people possess culture, however also said that culture is the way of if dressing and talking, then it possesses the understanding of what it comes to be culture. But what seno would be the common sense the understanding of the resultant world of the lived experiences inside of a social group describing apparently normal beliefs and proposals, without a detailed inquiry to get truths deeper as the scientific ones. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of John Stankey on most websites.
In this point we find interesting to give a vision amplified on this obligatory action. An article in the Magazine of History, n 138, So Paulo, July of 1998, Maria Corassin Luiza, of the Department of history of this Magazine, makes an excellent boarding on the Obligatory Charity as being a form of popular pressure in the society delay-old Roman. On the basis of the analysis of the heathen city and the Christian community, if detached two types of givers: the Evrgeta and the Christian. The Evergetismo is a term brother-in-law for the French historian. the Boulanger (1923) and drift of Greek EEPYETW (' ' I make good obras' '). (A valuable related resource: Aksia). This term indicates the practical one, in the classic world, of luxurious gifts for community of pparently disinterested form. Paul Veyne standed out, in referring to the Evergetismo and the charity, that evrgeta donates for different reasons: to mark its social distinction, for patriotism, civic sense: its gesture dirige it this real world. Evrgeta dirige it the considered people as the set of the citizens.
We also cannot, I tie to subestimar it that, in old Rome, special in the republican period, it was basic reference of the existencial purpose of each one. Beyond the social obligation that evrgeta had stops with the co-citizens, the rhetoric of the Roman people can itself be said that it also was lead for a responsibility sense, on, to basic the republican education, in which the city was an extension of the family and gens. On the other hand, the Christian giver, puts in practical its charity to acquire merit of God ahead: its generosity if dirige to another world. The target of the Christian giver is the poor persons, understood as a social and moral category, not civic. The existence of the poverty in the society Roman led to the despadronizado behavior of the civic actors.
One of most explicit was the exacerbado incentive of the republican government for European immigration, aiming at to branquear the population and to erase the marks of the African in Brazilian lands, as it affirms Albuquerque, the hope was that, in medium and long run, the country if became predominantly white. the way for the branqueamento was the miscegenation. In this manner ‘ ‘ race branca’ ‘ , considered more evolved, it would correct the marks left in the Brazilian population for those had as ‘ ‘ races inferiores’ ‘ , blacks and indians (ALBUQUERQUE, 2006, P. 206). The massive presence of the black is evident and of its afro-descendants in all the Brazilian society, since the colony, but also is clear its discrimination and the daily attempt to detail its race, and this is a historical construction, as already it was presented in this article, either in theoretical chains or in the concrete reality that surrounds afro descending, a society that it excludes constantly, to the times pleasant, I come back to remember the claw and the tenacity with that Mr.
Vicente fought, of the video the exception and the Rule, to demonstrate to that it could not only be excluded, as its ancestor had been, by being black. Therefore it is necessary that she has the desconstruo of these racist and exculpatory ideas, therefore the black, the mulato, afro descending, all they had been fundamental in the construction and uncurling of the history of our country, therefore it is part of all, not being able to be placed to the edge.
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CULTURE: FUNCTIONING AND CHANGE very to be argued on the cultural process for the which innumerable society pass and come passing throughout the years of existence, this of uninterrupted form, therefore all the cultures are always in movement, even so in some this process if it presents of sufficiently slow form. In others this process if presents of marcante where if it can find in each member and in all the members are gifts the cultural values. Some a crystallized feeling of allegiance is remained and as if they were perpetual values and invariant, in others they produce parts, foods artisan, even though the language passes for modifications. He is in fact difficult and even though risky, to establish the borders enters steady cultures and cultures in changes, considering that all the cultures are in movement, it is determined then, that culture in change will be those in which the cultural changes occur of form aceleramento of the rhythm. For those in which the slower process and, considers culture in functioning. Herskovits it considers as influential part extremely of installing itself of one of these two moments of the culture? functioning and change in society, the enduculturao process, being also the first one to use the term to assign the individual behaviors to the standards of the culture of a society, still in speaks of it; ' ' The aspects of the learning experience that distinguish the man from the other creatures, and by means of which, initially, and later, in the life it obtains to be competent in its culture, can call endoculturao. It constitutes essentially a conscientious process of and unconscious conditioning that if effects inside of the limits sancionados for determined custom aspect. For this process all adaptation to the social life is not only obtained, as well as all those satisfactions, that, even so making of course part of the social experience, more than derive the individual expression that of the association with others in grupo' '.