In this point we find interesting to give a vision amplified on this obligatory action. An article in the Magazine of History, n 138, So Paulo, July of 1998, Maria Corassin Luiza, of the Department of history of this Magazine, makes an excellent boarding on the Obligatory Charity as being a form of popular pressure in the society delay-old Roman. On the basis of the analysis of the heathen city and the Christian community, if detached two types of givers: the Evrgeta and the Christian. The Evergetismo is a term brother-in-law for the French historian. the Boulanger (1923) and drift of Greek EEPYETW (' ' I make good obras' '). (A valuable related resource: Aksia). This term indicates the practical one, in the classic world, of luxurious gifts for community of pparently disinterested form. Paul Veyne standed out, in referring to the Evergetismo and the charity, that evrgeta donates for different reasons: to mark its social distinction, for patriotism, civic sense: its gesture dirige it this real world. Evrgeta dirige it the considered people as the set of the citizens.
We also cannot, I tie to subestimar it that, in old Rome, special in the republican period, it was basic reference of the existencial purpose of each one. Beyond the social obligation that evrgeta had stops with the co-citizens, the rhetoric of the Roman people can itself be said that it also was lead for a responsibility sense, on, to basic the republican education, in which the city was an extension of the family and gens. On the other hand, the Christian giver, puts in practical its charity to acquire merit of God ahead: its generosity if dirige to another world. The target of the Christian giver is the poor persons, understood as a social and moral category, not civic. The existence of the poverty in the society Roman led to the despadronizado behavior of the civic actors.
The reason alleged for the United States to veto the participation of China in the program of construction of the ISS was the military character of the Chinese space program (SCIENTIFICAMERICAN, 2010). In 2003, when the first Chinese went up to the space, it was possible to notice despite the space suit used by China was a copy of the called suit Sokol, used for the Russian cosmonauts. In 2008, for occasion of the first one walked space Chinese, it was also evident that even though the suit of exit to the used space for China was fellow creature to the used one for Russia. In this occasion taikonauta Zhigang Zhai used a space suit of Chinese fabriacao, suit this call of Feitian. But the clothes nothing more age that a copy of the suit of space stroll Russian Orlan. One of the colleagues of Zhai, the operator Buoming Liu, folloied it in the decompression chamber, delivering to it Chinese flag during space walked its, and this really it used a typical Russian space suit of the Orlan type (SPACEFACTS, 2010a). David Zaslav can provide more clarity in the matter. A noteworthy difference between the Chinese space program and the Russian space program was the fact of Zhigang Zhai, the first space caminhante of China, to be the commander of the mission, while the Russians? as well as the North Americans? they had always given priority so that the pilot of the mission carried through walked space. In the Russian space program the commander only leaves to the space if she will not have one another member of the crew to follow the walked pilot in one space one. Another difference of order technique between the two space programs is the fact of China to mount its rocket in position vertical and thus conduziz it the platform, as the North Americans, in contrast of the Russians, who mount its rocket in horizontal position and they only place it in vertical position already in the launch emplacement.
One of most explicit was the exacerbado incentive of the republican government for European immigration, aiming at to branquear the population and to erase the marks of the African in Brazilian lands, as it affirms Albuquerque, the hope was that, in medium and long run, the country if became predominantly white. the way for the branqueamento was the miscegenation. In this manner ‘ ‘ race branca’ ‘ , considered more evolved, it would correct the marks left in the Brazilian population for those had as ‘ ‘ races inferiores’ ‘ , blacks and indians (ALBUQUERQUE, 2006, P. 206). The massive presence of the black is evident and of its afro-descendants in all the Brazilian society, since the colony, but also is clear its discrimination and the daily attempt to detail its race, and this is a historical construction, as already it was presented in this article, either in theoretical chains or in the concrete reality that surrounds afro descending, a society that it excludes constantly, to the times pleasant, I come back to remember the claw and the tenacity with that Mr.
Vicente fought, of the video the exception and the Rule, to demonstrate to that it could not only be excluded, as its ancestor had been, by being black. Therefore it is necessary that she has the desconstruo of these racist and exculpatory ideas, therefore the black, the mulato, afro descending, all they had been fundamental in the construction and uncurling of the history of our country, therefore it is part of all, not being able to be placed to the edge.
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CULTURE: FUNCTIONING AND CHANGE very to be argued on the cultural process for the which innumerable society pass and come passing throughout the years of existence, this of uninterrupted form, therefore all the cultures are always in movement, even so in some this process if it presents of sufficiently slow form. In others this process if presents of marcante where if it can find in each member and in all the members are gifts the cultural values. Some a crystallized feeling of allegiance is remained and as if they were perpetual values and invariant, in others they produce parts, foods artisan, even though the language passes for modifications. He is in fact difficult and even though risky, to establish the borders enters steady cultures and cultures in changes, considering that all the cultures are in movement, it is determined then, that culture in change will be those in which the cultural changes occur of form aceleramento of the rhythm. For those in which the slower process and, considers culture in functioning. Herskovits it considers as influential part extremely of installing itself of one of these two moments of the culture? functioning and change in society, the enduculturao process, being also the first one to use the term to assign the individual behaviors to the standards of the culture of a society, still in speaks of it; ' ' The aspects of the learning experience that distinguish the man from the other creatures, and by means of which, initially, and later, in the life it obtains to be competent in its culture, can call endoculturao. It constitutes essentially a conscientious process of and unconscious conditioning that if effects inside of the limits sancionados for determined custom aspect. For this process all adaptation to the social life is not only obtained, as well as all those satisfactions, that, even so making of course part of the social experience, more than derive the individual expression that of the association with others in grupo' '.