Mercury – the closest planet to the Sun, is located at a distance of 57,900,000 miles. Watch it can rarely, only in the morning and evening. Orbit around the Sun in just eighty-eight Earth days. Therefore, the rate of Mercury in its motion in orbit more than Earth. Year of Mercury in more than four times shorter than the Earth.
For rapidity, for the agility with which the planet is running across the sky, she was nicknamed the heavenly messenger. Mercury – the planet is small. The diameter of its 4,840 kilometers. By volume of Mercury is twenty times smaller than Earth. By the size of Mercury is a bit more of the moon. Until recently it was thought that Mercury always faces the sun on one side, as the Moon to the Earth. But in Actually this is not quite true. Recent observations showed that Mercury slowly rotates on its axis, making one revolution in fifty-nine Earth days.
Day and night on this planet lasts for a Earth's moon. Fever, which prevails on the day side of Mercury (the side facing the sun) reaches four degrees, and the unlit side of the permanent cold – about -50 . At this temperature, melt lead and tin. If Mercury were lead and tin mountain, over the long day they managed to turn into a sea of molten metal. And on the dark side of Mercury reigns intense cold. It is clear that under these conditions no life on the planet can not be. Mercury has no satellites. Watching him hard. The planet is too close to the Sun, and eclipse the sun's rays.
"Black Sands". So called the largest desert in Central Asia. It takes three-quarters of the territory of Turkmenistan, and is so large that Turkmens have laid on it saying: "When a bird flies across the Karakum desert, it loses its feathers when a person goes through the Karakum desert, he loses his legs. " The sun heats the earth generously. Heat so much that it could grow any, the most heat-loving plant.
But the Turkmens say: "Parental not land and water" – a little water in the Karakum desert. On this and desert. People long ago began working to transform the desert. For more than one channel cut through the sands of the Karakum desert. But the biggest of them – Karakum. Stretch from east to west from the Amu Darya River to the Caspian Sea across the desert by 1400 kilometers and will be the longest navigable canal in the world. On it will be for small vessels.
But the most important appointment of the channel – water the desert. The water in the desert – a new city, state farms, collective farms, cattle farms, cotton plantations and gardens. People try to make the best use desert. One after another, grow among the dunes of the Karakum desert islands of life: a small lake, well, houses for shepherds and plant. In the Kara-Kum reservoir have already been created, called Seas. Thirty artificial seas are there in the Karakum desert. They irrigate vast oases and desert climate change. Migratory birds that thousands refuge from the winter cold north to south Asia and Africa have changed their routes, and now remain to winter on the shores of the Karakum seas. Scientists have recently discovered under the Karakum large pools of underground fresh water, they are already used by residents of the desert. In convenient places foresters inoculated desert seeds to grow a forest strip. They will protect the cotton plantations of the hot winds and sandstorms.