Venezuelan territory encompasses three main geographic units that are going from west to east: the northern Andes and coastal ranges north and west, the Venezuelan Llanos are a vast sedimentary plains that are almost entirely from the Orinoco River to the north this river and the mountains and plateaus of training in the ancient south Venezuelan Orinoco River. Its configuration was in the process of formation of the South American continent, when aligned with a single continent africa, until his retirement in the Paleozoic. Very few countries in the world, except some very large, have the same variety of relief forms on its territory, which is very positive with regard to natural resources.
In Venezuela, the northern mountainous formations forks into two channels, built during the Tertiary, which begin to indicate in the north of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. The chain is formed in the western Sierra de Perija on the border with Colombia, which rises to 3750 m. The way the Eastern Cordillera of Merida, which culminates in the Pico Bolivar at 5007 meters, the highest in the country.
Parque de Coro, Estado Falcon.
These two mountain ranges surrounding the depression of Lake Maracaibo (13,280 KMA), the largest in South America, which occupies a large depression called the Gulf of Venezuela, which possesses large reserves of subsurface hydrocarbons. From Lake Maracaibo, the Cordillera de Merida and the Caribbean Sea and the mountains rise hollows Coriano System, consisting of three alignments of orographic oriented northeast to southwest. To the east, the mountainous region extends along the Caribbean coast through the Caribbean Cordillera, consisting of the Cordillera de la Costa and Serrania del Interior, both oriented east-west, and between which is the depression Lake Valencia. Others are separated by longitudinal valleys populous in which the majority of the country’s economic activity. Also include dunes, started in the city of Coro and extending northward toward the Paraguana peninsula, including the isthmus Medanos. The landscape is a desert, with dunes on the move by the action of the winds that blow from east to west. Finally, east of the ridge stands the massif of Cumana, which forms the peninsula of Araya and Paria, between the gulfs of Cariaco and Paria.
Panorama of La Gran Sabana.
The region of the Llanos del Orinoco took the central depression which extends from the Andean mountains and the valley of the Orinoco, along the plateau of Guiana. Contributes a vast plain that is characterized by its horizontality, covered by the sea in the past the origin of hydrocarbon reservoirs’ and now covered with layers of powerful river sediments drained by the Orinoco, which connects with the southern Amazon and extends to the Atlantic to the east, through a large river delta. Are different from others of alluvial formation, by its Constitution for its geological and general appearance, differing from them in the so-called High Plains or Western, well-drained and covered with vegetation, the Netherlands and Central Plains, flooded in the rainy season, and Llanos Orientales or Tables, characterized by the relief in the form of tabular plateau, which descends from the east to the Massif Cumana Orinoco, isolating the eastern end in the plains state of Monagas.
Mount Roraima in the Gran Sabana, Bolivar State.
Finally, southeast of the river rises the Guiana Shield, which blocks high relief has been subject to fluvial erosion, until it became a peneplain to the north and southwest. To the southeast, however, erosion has carved deep valleys, creating a secondary stress plateaus and small hills or plateaus called tepuis isolated, gradually rises to form the border with Brazil in the long chain of mountains Tapirapeco, and Pacaraima Parima. The Formacion Roraima in the north is responsible for the presence of tepuis, among which the Auyantepuy Plateau. At its west lies the Angel Falls, the tallest waterfall in the world free fall over the valley of the river Churun. However, the summit is the most prominent peak Roraima.
Limits in the Guayana Shield.
The area of the Guiana Shield is the oldest data, and next to the Brazilian Shield up one of the formations and oldest continental blocks of the planet, with more than 3500 million years. Its extension in Venezuela is about 430,000 KMA , which equals almost half the national territory.