When developing a business plan, the first stage is to identify and classify risks through risk analysis. Recently Brian Roberts sought to clarify these questions. Particular care should be exercised to the risks, the probability of occurrence is high, as well as those risks that can inflict maximum damage on the project. Having selected the most important risks are transferred to their quantitative analysis. The most important element of quantitative risk analysis is a sensitivity analysis. For its implementation shall be povarirovat various parameters project (prices, sales, construction period, inflation, etc.) and see how this changes performance. At the same time identifying the most critical parameters that may be most affected on the effectiveness of the project.
At the same time limits and calculated break-even point, ie actually reveals a lot of parameters of the project when the project will be effective and set the parameters of the project, in which he will be ineffective. Castle harlan takes a slightly different approach. Examines the range of possible values of uncertain parameters and, consequently, the extent of possible adverse scenarios of the development project. In the quantitative analysis Risk assessment is also expected effect (integral index) of the project, taking into account the quantitative characteristics of uncertainty (probability distribution, the range of changes of undetermined parameters, etc.). Based on the integrated performance of projects are subject to risks can make management decisions about the feasibility of the project, to compare projects with each other, etc. Today the most effective is a comprehensive approach to risk analysis.
On the one hand, this approach provides a more complete picture of the possible outcome of the project, ie all positive and negative surprises awaiting investors, on the other hand, makes possible a wide application of mathematical methods (especially the probabilistic and statistical) for risk analysis. In theory, the risks are the following types of mathematical models: direct, inverse and research problems of sensitivity. In direct problems of risk assessment associated with the determination of its level, is based on a priori known information. In inverse problems imposes limits on one or more input parameters varied to meet specified limits on the level of acceptable risk. The basic idea of sensitivity studies, applied due to the inevitable imprecision of the original information is a vulnerability, the degree of variability of output indicators in relation to variations in model parameters (probability distribution areas changes in certain variables, etc.). Findings of the study the sensitivity of the investment project reflects the degree of reliability of the analysis of project results. In the case of the unreliability of the analyst will forced to implement one of the following: clarify the parameters, the inaccuracy of which is the most significant result in the distortion, change the methods of processing raw data in order to reduce sensitivity of the response, change the mathematical model for analysis of project risks, to abandon the quantitative analysis of the business risk of the project. To avoid the errors described, after the development of Business Plan recommend ordering the expertise of the business plan (investment projects) have a third party. Remember that the effect of underestimating the risks today, you risk losing your money tomorrow.
To understand the reasons for which man must commit a certain action, try to find him a fear factor and the factors of profit. The fear factor implies that the client in order to avoid loss of something (money, work, status) is ready to respond to your offer, and gain factor stimulates the client to agree to your proposal, as it expects to receive certain benefits. It is important to understand that you do not sell your product and its features, and sell solutions problems to specific individuals. What are their problems a person may decide to accept your proposal? All at once, or only part? Significant or not? When we did the conference, half the audience of which came from the regions, we faced just this situation. Our delegates were the following problems: it was necessary to establish contacts with colleagues from across the country, to meet a guru in your field, get answers to their questions and to solve problems with accommodation and travel to the venue. We were the first in our industry who not only sold the right to visit the conference, but myself and booked a hotel parties, and provides a shuttle from the hotel to the venue and back. Thus, we have tried to solve all the problems of our clients, due to which our proposal was for them the most valuable. In addition, based on the fact that the solution always takes the man. While the man did not see or tried your product, you – the only one who can win or push him away from choice.
Undoubtedly sees the black hand of capital stuck in the flat tax, but also see the ignorance of our legislators, the foolishness of the Treasury or the bad faith of both. We see that there are dark in the content of this new tax: 1. the investment and goods will be deductible as that while they made us think that investments in assets and inventories would be 100% deductible in 2008 on the basis of the IETU, this seems to be not so true in the ISR. Review article 6 fraction VI of the Act of the flat tax that mentions that investments in fixed assets and acquisitions of goods must comply with the requirements of the deductions. If the SHCP clarifies not referred to requirements of deductions, we’d take it literally pointed us article 31 fraction II of the income tax act. He is here mentioned that they will be deductible in the case of fixed assets using the % Max of the income tax Act, as the procurement of freight will be deductible only by the cost of sales.
Too bad Margarito, it was too good to be true. 2. The Business single-rate tax, is not just for entrepreneurs is practically for everyone, so it should be called general tax at single rate. 3. Not all companies that pay Social Welfare pay IETU El IETU afteracquired exempt social security, but not in all cases. If the company in which they work reaches a % tax for its results of operation greater than 16.5% may continue the same plan of Social foresight that previously granted, because it will not generate IETU. However, if the company reduces its taxable income through losses in prior periods, or account with a preferential regime as the auto transporters, will then cause IETU by social security that pays or simply for not causing ISR.
Successfully attract Christmas is possible with a little preparation and sufficient temporal buffer. Christmas is just around the corner. Well, looking at the calendar testifies while leaving a few weeks in the country, until the feast of love and of giving back, but these go by faster than you think. In a time in the year, people’s thoughts revolve so much about the gifts and presents are. The Christmas time is therefore the ideal time for effective advertising. Is just for Christmas: the idea is one. Original and elaborate promotional positively lift your brand from competitors and create a positive image in the public domain.
Because however, just in the last few weeks before the holidays, the regular daily business can be sometimes a little stressful, we should deal already possible in the autumn with the promotional theme for Christmas. To invest a little more time in the planning and selection of optimal matching promotional products, the chance of success of marketing efforts is clear increases. For the selection of the ideal give aways, you should seek support from experts in the industry, non-binding support companies with expertise and knowledge of current news on the promotional products market. It is important to take time for the research certainly thank to the perfect Christmas promotional items that customers will be. Miriam Santiago
Today time to develop textile products for farm use as a raw material used stabilized polypropylene fiber, which occupies a leading position in this field. Its products successfully compete with the well-known to all plastic wrap. The development of modern technology is based on polypropylene to produce not only tissue but also non-woven fabrics (as well as textile lattices, trellises, special agrotrikotazha) significantly reduces the cost of production and expands its application. Spunbond is environmentally friendly, lightweight non-woven material. In contrast to the spunbond polyethylene film transmits light well, water and air. This creates the necessary climate for plants that can be watered directly through the material.
In agriculture, the spunbond used in three main areas: Covering material density beds Spunbond 17 g / sq.m. used to protect vegetables, fruit, berries, and ornamental plants in open ground, and shrubs from the scorching heat and freezing nights of short-term (up to -1 – -2 C). Air, water, light transmission and low thermal conductivity of the material ensure a favorable microclimate for plant growth. Planting material protects from insects, birds and hail. The use of fabric density 17, 30 accelerates the ripening of fruits in climatic conditions of Russia. Useful properties of sheltered spunbond: Prevention of hypothermia and heat plants, providing an optimum microclimate for their development; reduce evaporation from the soil surface, maintaining its optimum moisture content and reduced-irrigation; ensuring an optimal balance of night and daytime temperatures; lengthening the timing of fruiting plants; Reliable protection from pests and diseases.
Our enterprise has not lost market share, but neither won. 9 – At the tenth month offensive has: hired a new commercial. Acquired a specific computer to send information via fax daily. Information that was relevant to the managers of the offices. Customer loyalty 40 more for the same procedure joint meeting to review of records at no charge.
And staff focus on a new entity with 725 offices. At the end of 11th month 66% of the reports of the first entity and 15% of the second were channeled by our entrepreneurs. What would be the leader you attacked? 10 – The counter-leader to start the month twelve, and using the contacts and experience that gave him 10 years working with the Entities, pressured the managers of offices across the dome of local entities. Personally visited the 120 most loyal customers by offering the same service, the same price. He hired a shopping and established a system of routes that allowed commercial contact with all offices of the greater of the Entities at least 1 time per month. Service equaled the information by fax. He got in touch with providers of confidential information indicating that no further work with the newcomer. "There is widespread discouragement? In our entrepreneurial number fourteen months found a decrease in turnover of almost 40%, found that half of its information providers are not served him. It was found that more than 100 offices were not made to the phone and not received. Spread discouragement! 11 – Time to reflect and the offensive end at closing the month with a further decline in sales, held a rally unexpected – at least we did not expect – …
The market describes the macroeconomic environment of a company the macro environment may refer to the macroeconomic environment of the company, such as the economy, where the company is located, the socio-cultural realities as well as the technological, legal and political environment. The micro-environment, however, is the market in which the company operates. The market is an economic place of the system and identifies the exchange relations and activities between providers and buyers of certain goods or services. This Exchange is limited not only to products and goods, but does not include the exchange of information. The company as the only provider in the market is a monopoly.
It can determine therefore the prices and has to adjust only the wishes of the customer. In an oligopoly, however, only some few suppliers of a product available in the market. Pure oligopolies are different during differentiated oligopolies products from companies that produce similar or same products, such as Make cars or cameras. At pure oligopolies, the company therefore primarily about cost benefits can expand their market position, companies in a differentiated oligopolistic market position, however, must differ from each other by product characteristics, quality, and level of service, to attract consumers. If the market has a wide variety of providers, called perfect or monopolistic competition. In a monopolistic competition, many companies offer similar products, able to communicate but by advertising differences between their products (a luxury restaurant offers similar services like other restaurants, but differs from the competition atmosphere, quality and service and can charge therefore higher prices).
Perfect competition is a market situation in which many companies offer these same products (such as securities). There is no differentiation, therefore the prices are the same. Profit can be achieved only by lower production or distribution costs. Entrants suppliers supply the company with raw material required to manufacture products. Sales are companies that purchase products from the companies to resell them in various forms to the end consumer. Typical marketing agents are wholesalers who distribute large amounts of product to resellers or retailers who sell small quantities of products directly to consumers. Customers are the sellers in the market. A large number of customers allows the company to focus on the customer group that is most profitable. The customers that a company uses, describe also its market type (consumer or consumer goods market (sell directly to end customers)), company or producer market (companies which use the products to the postprocessing), Wiederverkaufsmarkte(Grosshandler, Supermarkte)). Interest groups are market participants who are not consumers or suppliers of the company but may nevertheless affect its market activity (media First, public opinion, consumer associations and clubs, authorities or working for the company services (such as law firms or notaries)). Ing.