Long thanks to its geographical position and its long history, Morocco has become a place of cultural exchange between the Arab world, Europe, Africa and the Amazigh. Morocco therefore enjoys a rich and varied musical heritage that represents all the peoples that make up the Moroccan society. There are three main musical styles in Morocco: Andalusian music, gnawa music and the dekka the marrakchia. ell. In this article, I will focus on the Andalusian music. Morocco is a country of the Maghreb deeply impregnated by arabe-andaluza culture, and this simple and obvious reasons: the geographic proximity to Spain, as well as the intervention of the current dynasty of Morocco in Andalusia. The settlement in Morocco of a vast majority of Andalusians come from important Spanish cities such as Toledo, Cordoba, Sevilla, Valencia and Granada, after the Decree of 1609 that ordered the expulsion of the Moriscos in the peninsula, as well as the role of patronage of artists and Andalusian musicians by the Alawite dynasty, the absence of secular colonization Ottoman and a brief French colonization, they assured the artistic continuity in a significant way. According to historian Bernard Lugan, specialist in African history, during the eight centuries of Muslim presence in Andalusia, seven of them were closely related to Morocco.
Thanks to its strategic geographic location, Morocco has always been a natural place for trade and exchange between Europe and Africa and the Muslim world. The Andalusians non-Christians (Jewish and Muslim) began to abandon Andalusia in the 11th century, during the reign of Alfonso VI, reine de Castilla y Leon. The last group was the of the Moriscos who, in principle, had converted to Christianity to avoid being deported. Thanks to its situation crucial, especially spiritually, the Fez city became home to many Jews and Muslims refugees of Toledo, Cordoba (which fell against the Spaniards in the 12th century) and Seville (taken in the 13th century). One of the neighborhoods of Fez is known as the Andaluz neighbourhood.
Cities like Tetouan were completely rebuilt and repopulated by refugees from Granada. The Moriscos installed in Rabat and Sale pirates formed republics who successfully conducted numerous actions of piracy, allowing them to negotiate with many countries, including Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Iceland. Many communities identified themselves as Moroccan Andalusian. Surnames such as Diaz, Andaloussi, Torres, Toledano, Kortobi (of Cordoba), Molina, Gharnat (in Granada), and Nigno resonate and preserving that heritage. The orchestras of Fez, Tangiers and Tetuan still use instruments traditionally used in andalusi music dating back to the 9th century, such as the lute, the rebab, the darbouka, tambourine or taarija, zither or qanun and violin or kamenjah. In Morocco, Andalusian music is also called al – Ala and has been long fostered and promoted by the authorities. If they wish to enjoy the Andalusian music at first hand, come to Marrakech and live their rich musical heritage. Many restaurants and hotels in Marrakech celebrated evenings of traditional music and numerous riads in Marrakech and villas in Marrakech have their own shows of Andalusian music.